Major Features Of The Constitution of India || Important pointers for APSC CCE exam

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The Constitution of India, adopted on January 26, 1950, is a remarkable document that lays the foundation for the world’s largest democracy. From its preamble to the intricate details, the Constitution reflects the ideals and principles that shape the nation. Here are the major features that distinguish the Indian Constitution from others around the globe.

1. Lengthiest Written Constitution:

India proudly boasts the world’s lengthiest written constitution, encompassing fundamental principles and detailed administrative provisions. Shaped by geographical diversity, historical influences, and legal luminaries, its comprehensive nature sets it apart.

2. Drawn from Various Sources:

A synthesis of global constitutional wisdom, India’s Constitution borrows from diverse sources. Dr. B R Ambedkar, the chief architect, proclaimed it to be a result of ‘ransacking all the known Constitutions of the world,’ merging elements from the American, Irish, and British models.

3. Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility:

Uniquely combining features of rigidity and flexibility, the Indian Constitution provides for three types of amendments. This distinctive approach accommodates varying degrees of complexity in the amending procedures, reflecting a balance between stability and adaptability.

4. Federal System with Unitary Bias:

Establishing a federal system, the Constitution retains unitary elements. Despite having two governments, it maintains a strong Centre and incorporates terms like ‘Union of States.’ Described as ‘federal in form but unitary in spirit,’ it safeguards against secession.

5. Parliamentary Form of Government:

Choosing the Westminster model over the American presidential system, India adopted a parliamentary form of government. This system emphasizes cooperation between legislative and executive branches, with the Prime Minister playing a significant role.

6. Synthesis of Parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy:

Harmonizing British parliamentary sovereignty and American judicial supremacy, the Indian Constitution achieves a delicate balance. The Supreme Court can declare laws unconstitutional through judicial review, while Parliament holds the power to amend the Constitution.

7. Rule of Law:

Incorporating the rule of law, the Constitution ensures that individuals are governed by law, not arbitrary decisions. Fundamental rights, Lok Adalats, and public interest litigation uphold this principle, emphasizing equality and justice.

8. Integrated and Independent Judiciary:

India’s single integrated judiciary, led by the Supreme Court, stands independent of the executive and legislature. Ensuring judicial autonomy, it safeguards citizens’ fundamental rights and acts as the guardian of the Constitution.

9. Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles:

Part III guarantees six fundamental rights, limiting executive power and protecting individual liberties. Meanwhile, Part IV outlines Directive Principles of State Policy, promoting social and economic justice without being justiciable.

10. Fundamental Duties:

Introduced through the 42nd Amendment, fundamental duties outline obligations for citizens. A reflection of civic responsibility, these duties contribute to the overall welfare and progress of the nation.

11. Indian Secularism:

India’s secular state, as per the Constitution, maintains neutrality towards religions. Emphasizing equal respect for all faiths, it upholds political equality, rejecting discrimination based on religion.

12. Universal Adult Franchise:

Ensuring political equality, the Constitution grants the right to vote to every citizen aged 18 and above, irrespective of caste, sex, race, religion, or status.

13. Single Citizenship:

Contrary to federal norms, India opts for single citizenship, fostering a sense of unity among its citizens. Regardless of residence or birthplace, every Indian is a citizen of the nation.

14. Independent Bodies:

Apart from legislative, executive, and judicial branches, the Constitution establishes independent bodies like the Election Commission, CAG, and UPSC to strengthen the democratic system.

15. Emergency Provisions:

Anticipating exceptional circumstances, the Constitution outlines emergency provisions to safeguard sovereignty, unity, integrity, and the democratic system.

16. Three-tier Government:

Innovatively, India introduces a three-tier system with the addition of local government through constitutional amendments in 1992, fostering grassroots democracy.

17. Co-operative Societies:

Recognizing the importance of cooperative societies, the Constitution, through the 97th Amendment, provides constitutional status and protection, emphasizing their democratic and professional functioning.

18. Philosophy of Constitution:

Rooted in the Objectives Resolution of 1947, the Constitution embodies principles of independence, democracy, justice, secularism, socialism, humanism, and the welfare of all. The evolving philosophy reflects the aspirations of a diverse and dynamic nation.

Important pointers on APSC CCE exam:

1. The time taken to prepare the constitution:

It took around 2 years, 11 months, and 18 days to create the Indian Constitution.

In conclusion, the Constitution of India is a living document that encapsulates the nation’s ethos, evolving with time while providing a robust framework for democracy, justice, and equality.

2. The Indian Constitution is the largest in the World.

3. A total of 283 members of the constitution assembly signed the constitution.


5. The illustrations in the Constitution represent styles from the different civilizations of the subcontinent, ranging from the prehistoric Mohenjodaro, in the Indus Valley, to the present. The calligraphy in the book was done by Prem Behari Narain Raizda. It was illuminated by Nandalal Bose and other artists, published by Dehra Dun, and photolithographed at the Survey of India Offices.

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